Tae Kwon Do

A SHORT TEXT ABOUT

TAE KWON DO

History of Taekwondo

Further information: Korean martial arts

Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of the occupation of Korea by Imperial Japan, new martial arts schools called kwans were opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean martial artists who had studied primarily in Japan during the Japanese rule. The umbrella term traditional taekwondo typically refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term "taekwondo" had not yet been coined at that time, and indeed each kwan was practicing their own unique style of martial art. During this timeframe taekwondo was also adopted for use by the South Korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian martial arts schools.

 

After witnessing a martial arts demonstration by the military in 1952, South Korean President Syngman Rhee urged that the martial arts styles of the kwans be merged. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unified style of Korean martial art. The name Tae Soo Do was used to describe this notional unified style. This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae "to stomp, trample", 手 su "hand" and 道 do "way, discipline".

 

In 2020, Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the name Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su "hand" by 拳 kwon "fist", the term also used for "martial arts" in Chinese (pinyin quán). The new name was initially slow to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) was established to facilitate the unification of Korean martial arts. In 1966, Choi established the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF) as a separate governing body devoted to institutionalizing a common style of taekwondo.

 

Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s complicated the adoption of ITF-style taekwondo as a unified style, however. The South Korean government wished to avoid North Korean influence on the martial art. Conversely, ITF president Choi Hong Hi sought support for the martial art from all quarters, including North Korea. In response, in 1973 South Korea withdrew its support for the ITF. The ITF continued to function as an independent federation, then headquartered in Toronto, Canada; Choi continued to develop the ITF-style, notably with the 1987 publication of his Encyclopedia of Taekwondo. After Choi's retirement the ITF split in 2001 and then again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate today under the same name.

 

Han Moo Kwan was founded in August 1954 by Kyo Yoon Lee and is one of the nine original Kwans that later formed Kukkiwon Taekwondo.

 

Lee was a student at the Chosun Yun Moo Kwan Kwon Bop Bu (sometimes spelled "Yun Mu Kwan" in English transliteration), learning from its founder, Sang Sup Chun. Later, after the Korean War Armistice Agreement was signed in 1953, Lee started teaching the returning Yun Moo Kwan Kwon Bop Bu members at the Hankuk Chaeyuk Kwan Dojang. He had conflicts with Chong Woo Lee and left to start his own annex Kwan by setting up a tent at a High School. Later, Chong Woo Lee changed the Yun Moo Kwan Kwon Bop Bu's name to Jidokwan. Kyo Yoon Lee states that Han Moo Kwan is from Choson Yun Moo Kwan Kwon Bop Bu, not Jidokwan.

 

Kyo Yoon Lee continues to be active in the Kukkiwon and serves on the High Dan/Poom Black Belt promotion committee of the Kukkiwon.

 

Taekwondo Han Moo Kwan still exists today, but only as a fraternal social friendship club. The official training curriculum endorsed by Taekwondo Han Moo Kwan is the Kukkiwon curriculum. The current President of Taekwondo Han Moo Kwan remains its founder, Kyo Yoon Lee. Han Moo Kwan supports the World Taekwondo Federation and Kukkiwon.

 

In 1973 the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for taekwondo. Kukkiwon now served many of the functions previously served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unified style of taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) to promote taekwondo specifically as an international sport. WTF competitions employ Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. For this reason, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo is often referred to as WTF-style taekwondo, sport-style taekwondo, or Olympic-style taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WTF.

 

Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts (the other being judo) that are included in the Olympic Games. It became a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, and became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.

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